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Alcoholic liver disease

Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis

Alcoholic liver disease is damage to the liver and its function due to alcohol abuse.

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Digestive system

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Causes

Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. The heavy drinking could be every day, or just a few days a week (such as on weekends). Any type of alcohol can cause disease. Alcohol can cause inflammation in the liver. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the final phase of alcoholic liver disease.

Alcoholic liver disease does not occur in all heavy drinkers. The chances of getting liver disease go up the longer you have been drinking and more alcohol you consume. You do not have to get drunk for the disease to happen.

The disease seems to be more common in some families. Women may be more likely to have this problem than men.

Symptoms

Symptoms vary based on how bad the disease is. You may not have symptoms in the early stages. Symptoms tend to be worse after a period of heavy drinking.

Digestive symptoms include:

Skin problems such as:

Brain and nervous system symptoms include:

Exams and Tests

Tests you may need to look for the disease include:

Tests to rule out other diseases include:

Treatment

The most important part of treatment is to stop using alcohol completely. If liver cirrhosis has not yet occurred, the liver can heal if you stop drinking alcohol.

An alcohol rehabilitation program or counseling may be necessary to break the alcohol addiction. Vitamins, especially B-complex and folic acid, can help reverse malnutrition.

If cirrhosis develops, you may need to manage the complications of cirrhosis. You may need a liver transplant if there has been a lot of liver damage.

Support Groups

Many people benefit from joining support groups for alcoholism or liver disease.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Continuing to drink too much can shorten your lifespan. Your risk for complications such as bleeding, brain changes, and severe liver damage go up. The outcome will likely be poor if you keep drinking.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if:

Prevention

Talk to your provider about your alcohol intake and how much is safe for you.

Related Information

Acute
Chronic
Cirrhosis
Alcohol use and safe drinking
Liver disease
Malabsorption
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Bleeding esophageal varices
Hepatic encephalopathy
Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)
Cirrhosis - discharge

References

Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ. Feldman: Sleisinger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 84.

Garcia-Tsao G. Cirrhosis and its sequelae. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 156.

Garcia-Tsao G, Lim JK; Members of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program. Management and treatment of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension: recommendations from the Department of Veterans Affairs Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and the National Hepatitis C Program. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:1802-1829. PMID: 19455106 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19455106.

Mehta G, Rothstein KD. Health maintenance issues in cirrhosis. Med Clin North Am. 2009;93:901-915. PMID: 19577121 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19577121.

O'Shea RS, Dasarathy S, McCullough AJ et al. AASLD Practice Guidelines: Alcoholic liver disease. HEPATOLOGY. 2010;51(1) PMID: 19904248 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19904248.

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Review Date: 11/20/2014  

Reviewed By: Jenifer K. Lehrer, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Frankford-Torresdale Hospital, Aria Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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