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Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

Membranoproliferative GN I; Membranoproliferative GN II; Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis; Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis; Lobular GN; Glomerulonephritis - membranoproliferative; MPGN type I; MPGN type II

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder that involves inflammation and changes to kidney cells. It may lead to kidney failure.

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Causes

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli. The glomeruli of the kidney help filter wastes and fluids from the blood to form urine.

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a form of glomerulonephritis caused by an abnormal immune response. Deposits of antibodies build up in a part of the kidneys called the glomerular basement membrane. This membrane helps filter wastes and extra fluids from the blood.

Damage to this membrane affects the kidney's ability to create urine normally. It may allow blood and protein to leak into the urine. If enough protein leaks into the urine, fluid may leak out of the blood vessels into body tissues, leading to swelling (edema). Nitrogen waste products may also build up in the blood (azotemia).

The 2 forms of this disease are MPGN I and MPGN II.

Most people with the disease have type I. MPGN II is much less common. It also tends to get worse faster than MPGN I.

Causes of MPGN may include:

Symptoms

Symptoms may include any of the following:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will examine you and ask about your symptoms. The provider may find that you have signs of too much fluid in the body, such as:

The following tests help confirm the diagnosis:

Treatment

Treatment depends on the symptoms. The goals of treatment are to reduce symptoms, prevent complications, and slow the progression of the disorder.

You may need a change in diet. This may include limiting salt, fluids, or protein to help control high blood pressure, swelling, and the buildup of waste products in the blood.

Medicines that may be prescribed include:

Treatment is more effective in children than in adults. Dialysis or kidney transplant may eventually be needed to manage kidney failure.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The disorder often slowly gets worse and eventually results in chronic kidney failure.

Half of people with this condition develop chronic kidney failure within 10 years. This is more likely in those who have higher levels of protein in their urine.

Possible Complications

Complications that may result from this disease include:

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your provider if:

Prevention

Preventing infections such as hepatitis or managing diseases such as lupus may help prevent MPGN.

Related Information

Glomerulonephritis
Immune response
Antibody
Acute nephritic syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome
Urinalysis
Swelling
High blood pressure
Renin blood test
BUN - blood test
Creatinine blood test
Prerenal azotemia
Chronic kidney disease
Acute kidney failure

References

Schena FP, Alpers CE. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 21.

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Review Date: 9/22/2015  

Reviewed By: Charles Silberberg, DO, private practice specializing in nephrology, affiliated with New York Medical College, Division of Nephrology, Valhalla, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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