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Autoimmune disorders

An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body's immune system attacks and destroys healthy body tissue by mistake. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune disorders.

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Graves' disease
Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis)
Multiple sclerosis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Synovial fluid
Rheumatoid arthritis
Antibodies

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Causes

The blood cells in the body's immune system help protect against harmful substances. Examples include bacteria, viruses, toxins, cancer cells, and blood and tissue from outside the body. These substances contain antigens. The immune system produces antibodies against these antigens that enable it to destroy these harmful substances.

When you have an autoimmune disorder, your immune system does not distinguish between healthy tissue and antigens. As a result, the body sets off a reaction that destroys normal tissues.

The exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or viruses) or drugs may trigger changes that confuse the immune system. This may happen more often in people who have genes that make them more prone to autoimmune disorders.

An autoimmune disorder may result in:

An autoimmune disorder may affect one or more organ or tissue types. Areas often affected by autoimmune disorders include:

A person may have more than one autoimmune disorder at the same time. Common autoimmune disorders include:

Symptoms

Symptoms will vary based on the type and location of the faulty immune response. Common symptoms include:

Exams and Tests

The health care provider will do a physical exam. Signs depend on the type of disease.

Tests that may be done to diagnose an autoimmune disorder include:

Treatment

The goals of treatment are to:

Treatments will depend on your disease and symptoms. Types of treatments include:

Many people take medicines to reduce the immune system's abnormal response. These are often called immunosuppressive medicines. Examples include corticosteroids (such as prednisone) and nonsteroid drugs such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, sirolimus, or tacrolimus. Targeted drugs called tumor necrosis factor (TFN) blockers can be used for some diseases.

Outlook (Prognosis)

The outcome depends on the disease. Most autoimmune diseases are chronic, but many can be controlled with treatment.

Symptoms of autoimmune disorders can come and go. When symptoms get worse, it is called a flare-up.

Possible Complications

Complications depend on the disease. Medicines used to suppress the immune system can cause severe side effects, such as higher risk of infections.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of an autoimmune disorder.

Prevention

There is no known prevention for most autoimmune disorders.

Related Information

Immune response
Toxins
Cancer
Antibody
Antigen
Allergies
Endocrine glands
Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)
Pernicious anemia
Addison disease
Type 1 diabetes
Rheumatoid arthritis
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Dermatomyositis
Sjögren syndrome
Multiple sclerosis
Myasthenia gravis
Reactive arthritis
Graves disease

References

Bylund DJ, Nakamura RM. Organ-specific autoimmune diseases. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 53.

Kono DH, Theofilopoulos AN. Autoimmunity. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 20.

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Review Date: 4/30/2015  

Reviewed By: Laura J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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