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Cataract removal

Cataract extraction; Cataract surgery

Cataract removal is surgery to remove a clouded lens (cataract) from the eye. Cataracts are removed to help you see better. The procedure almost always includes placing an artificial lens (IOL) in the eye.

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Cataract

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Cataract surgery  - series

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Description

Cataract surgery is an outpatient procedure. This means you likely do not have to stay overnight at a hospital. The surgery is performed by an ophthalmologist. This is a medical doctor who specializes in eye diseases and eye surgery.

Adults are usually awake for the procedure. Numbing medicine (local anesthesia) is given using eyedrops or a shot. This blocks pain. You will also get medicine to help you relax. Children usually receive general anesthesia. This makes them unconscious and unable to feel pain.

The doctor uses a special microscope to view the eye. A small cut (incision) is made in the eye.

The lens is removed in one of the following ways, depending on the type of cataract:

After the cataract is removed, a manmade lens, called an intraocular lens (IOL), is usually placed into the eye. It helps improve your vision.

The doctor may close the incision with very small stitches. Usually, a self-sealing (sutureless) method is used. If you have stitches, they may need to be removed later.

The surgery lasts less than half an hour. Most times, just one eye is done. If you have cataracts in both eyes, your doctor may suggest waiting at least 1 to 2 weeks between each surgery.

Why the Procedure Is Performed

The normal lens of the eye is clear (transparent). As a cataract develops, the lens becomes cloudy. This blocks light from entering your eye. Without enough light, you cannot see as clearly.

Cataracts are painless. They are most often seen in the elderly. Sometimes children are born with them. Cataract surgery is usually done if you cannot see well enough because of cataracts. Cataracts usually do not damage your eye, so you and your eye doctor can decide when surgery is right for you.

Risks

In rare cases, the entire lens cannot be removed. If this happens, a procedure to remove all of the lens fragments will be done at a later time. Afterward, vision of most patients is still improved.

Very rare complications can include infection and bleeding. This can lead to permanent vision problems.

Before the Procedure

Before surgery, you will have a complete eye exam and eye tests by the ophthalmologist.

The doctor will use ultrasound or a laser scanning device to measure your eye. These tests help determine the best IOL for you.

Your doctor may prescribe eyedrops before the surgery. Follow instructions exactly on how to use the drops.

After the Procedure

Before you go home, you may receive the following:

You will need to have someone drive you home after surgery.

You will usually have a follow-up exam with your doctor the next day. If you had stitches, you will need to make an appointment to have them removed.

Tips for recovering after cataract surgery:

Recovery takes about 2 weeks. If you need new glasses or contact lenses, you can usually have them fitted at that time. Keep your follow-up visit with your doctor.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Most patients do well and recover quickly after cataract surgery.

If a person has other eye problems, such as glaucoma or macular degeneration, the surgery may be more difficult or the outcome may not be as good.

Related Information

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Congenital cataract
Blindness and vision loss
Vision problems
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Preventing falls
Cataracts - what to ask your doctor
Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor

References

American Academy of Ophthalmology Cataract and Anterior Segment Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Cataract in the Adult Eye. San Francisco, Ca: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 2011. Accessed August 29, 2013.

Davison JA, Kleinmann G, Greenwald Y, Apple DJ. Intraocular lenses. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s Ophthalmology on CD-ROM - 2013 Edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013: vol 6, chap 11.

Cionni RJ, Snyder ME, Osher RH. Cataract surgery. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane’s Ophthalmology on DVD-ROM - 2013 Edition. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013: vol 6, chap 6.

He L, Sheehy K, Culbertson W. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2011;22:43-52.

Howes FW. Indications for lens surgery/indications for application of different lens surgery techniques. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008:chap 5.4.

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Review Date: 8/24/2013  

Reviewed By: Franklin W. Lusby, MD, Ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La Jolla, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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