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Spinal fusion

Vertebral interbody fusion; Posterior spinal fusion; Arthrodesis; Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion

Spinal fusion is surgery to permanently join together two or more bones in the spine so there is no movement between them. These bones are called vertebrae.

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Scoliosis

Presantation

Spinal fusion  - series

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Description

You will be asleep and feel no pain (general anesthesia).

The doctor will make a surgical cut (incision) to view the spine. Other surgery, such as a diskectomy, laminectomy, or a foraminotomy, is almost always done first. Spinal fusion may be done:

The surgeon will use a graft (such as bone) to hold (or fuse) the bones together permanently. There are several ways of fusing vertebrae together:

The surgeon may get the bone graft from different places:

The vertebrae may also fixed together with rods, screws, plates, or cages. They are used to keep the vertebrae from moving until the bone grafts are fully healed.

Surgery can take 3 to 4 hours.

Why the Procedure Is Performed

Spinal fusion is most often done along with other surgical procedures of the spine. It may be done:

Spinal fusion may be done if you have:

You and your doctor can decide when you need to have surgery.

Risks

Risks of this surgery include:

Before the Procedure

Tell your doctor or nurse what medicines you are taking. These include medicines, herbs, and supplements you bought without a prescription.

During the days before the surgery:

On the day of the surgery:

After the Procedure

You will stay in the hospital for 3 to 4 days after surgery.

You will receive pain medicines in the hospital. You may take pain medicine by mouth or have a shot or an intravenous line (IV). You may have a pump that allows you to control how much pain medicine you get.

You will be taught how to move properly and how to sit, stand, and walk. You will be told to use a "log-rolling" technique when getting out of bed. This means that you move your entire body at once, without twisting your spine.

You may not be able to eat for 2 to 3 days. You will be given nutrients through an IV. When you leave the hospital, you may need to wear a back brace or cast.

Your healthcare team will tell you how to take care of yourself at home after spine surgery. Follow instructions on how to take care of your back at home.

Outlook (Prognosis)

If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain and other symptoms.

It is hard for a surgeon to predict which patients will improve and how much relief surgery will provide, even when using MRI scans or other tests.

Losing weight and getting exercise increases your chances of feeling better.

Future spine problems are possible after spine surgery. After spinal fusion, the area that was fused together can no longer move. Therefore, the spinal column above and below the fusion are more likely to be stressed when the spine moves, and may have problems later on.

Related Information

Scoliosis
Kyphosis
Bone graft
Anterior
Herniated disk
Osteoarthritis
Spinal stenosis
Sciatica
Taking care of your back at home
Neck pain
Diskectomy
Laminectomy
Foraminotomy
Low back pain - acute
Low back pain - chronic
Bathroom safety - adults
Surgical wound care - open
Preventing falls
Spine surgery - discharge
Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor

References

Wood GW III. Arthrodesis of the spine. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 39.

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Review Date: 9/8/2014  

Reviewed By: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team

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