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Spinal injury

Spinal cord injury; SCI

 

The spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between your brain and body. The cord passes through your neck and back. A spinal cord injury is very serious because it can cause loss of movement (paralysis) below the site of the injury.

Causes

 

A spinal cord injury may be caused by:

  • Bullet or stab wound
  • Traumatic injury to the face, neck, head, chest, or back (for example, a car accident)
  • Diving accident
  • Electric shock
  • Extreme twisting of the middle of the body
  • Landing on the head during a sports injury
  • Fall from a great height

 

Symptoms

 

Symptoms of a spinal cord injury may include any of the following:

  • Head that is in an unusual position
  • Numbness or tingling that spreads down an arm or leg
  • Weakness
  • Difficulty walking
  • Paralysis (loss of movement) of arms or legs
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • Shock (pale, clammy skin; bluish lips and fingernails; acting dazed or semiconscious)
  • Lack of alertness (unconsciousness)
  • Stiff neck, headache, or neck pain

 

First Aid

 

Never move anyone who you think may have a spinal injury, unless it is absolutely necessary. For example, if you need to get the person out of a burning car, or help them to breathe.

Keep the person completely still and safe until medical help arrives.

  • Call the local emergency number, such as 911.
  • Hold the person's head and neck in the position in which they were found. Do not try to straighten the neck. Do not allow the neck to bend or twist.
  • Do not allow the person to get up and walk unassisted.

If the person is not alert or responding to you:

  • Check the person's breathing and circulation.
  • If needed, do CPR. Do not do rescue breathing, do chest compressions only.

Do not roll the person over unless the person is vomiting or choking on blood, or you need to check for breathing. If you need to roll the person over:

  • Have someone assist you.
  • One person should be located at the person's head; the other at the person's side.
  • Keep the person's head, neck, and back in line while you roll him or her onto one side.

 

Do Not

 

  • Do not bend, twist, or lift the person's head or body.
  • Do not attempt to move the person before medical help arrives unless it is absolutely necessary.
  • Do not remove a football helmet or pads if a spinal injury is suspected.

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your local emergency number (such as 911) if you think someone has a spinal cord injury. Do not move the person unless there is urgent danger.

 

Prevention

 

The following may lower your risk of spinal injury:

  • Wear seat belts.
  • Do not drink and drive.
  • Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the water or if the water is not clear.
  • Do not tackle or dive into a person with your head.

 

 

References

American Red Cross. First Aid/CPR/AED Participant's Manual. 2nd ed. Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2014.

Kaji AH, Newton E, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. 

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  • Skeletal spine

    Skeletal spine

    illustration

  • Vertebra, cervical (neck)

    Vertebra, cervical (neck...

    illustration

  • Vertebra, lumbar (low back)

    Vertebra, lumbar (low ba...

    illustration

  • Vertebra, thoracic (mid back)

    Vertebra, thoracic (mid ...

    illustration

  • Vertebral column

    Vertebral column

    illustration

  • Central nervous system

    Central nervous system

    illustration

  • Spinal cord injury

    Spinal cord injury

    illustration

  • Spinal anatomy

    Spinal anatomy

    illustration

  • Two person roll - series

    Two person roll - series

    Presentation

  •  
    • Skeletal spine

      Skeletal spine

      illustration

    • Vertebra, cervical (neck)

      Vertebra, cervical (neck...

      illustration

    • Vertebra, lumbar (low back)

      Vertebra, lumbar (low ba...

      illustration

    • Vertebra, thoracic (mid back)

      Vertebra, thoracic (mid ...

      illustration

    • Vertebral column

      Vertebral column

      illustration

    • Central nervous system

      Central nervous system

      illustration

    • Spinal cord injury

      Spinal cord injury

      illustration

    • Spinal anatomy

      Spinal anatomy

      illustration

    • Two person roll - series

      Two person roll - series

      Presentation

    •  

    A Closer Look

     

      Talking to your MD

       

        Self Care

         

          Tests for Spinal injury

           
             

            Review Date: 4/13/2015

            Reviewed By: Dennis Ogiela, MD, orthopedic surgery and physical medicine and rehabilitation, Danbury Hospital, Danbury, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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