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Mouth ulcers

Oral ulcer; Stomatitis - ulcerative; Ulcer - mouth

 

Mouth ulcers are sores or open lesions in the mouth.

Causes

 

Mouth ulcers are caused by many disorders. These include:

  • Canker sores
  • Gingivostomatitis
  • Herpes simplex (fever blister)
  • Leukoplakia
  • Oral cancer
  • Oral lichen planus
  • Oral thrush

A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may also appear as a mouth ulcer.

 

Symptoms

 

Symptoms will vary, based on the cause of the mouth ulcer. Symptoms may include:

  • Open sores in the mouth
  • Pain or discomfort in the mouth

 

Exams and Tests

 

Most of the time, a health care provider or dentist will look the ulcer and where it is in the mouth to make the diagnosis. You may need blood tests or a biopsy of the ulcer may be needed to confirm the cause.

 

Treatment

 

The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms.

  • The underlying cause of the ulcer should be treated if it is known.
  • Gently cleaning your mouth and teeth may help relieve your symptoms.
  • Medicines that you rub directly on the ulcer such as antihistamines, antacids, and corticosteroids may help soothe discomfort.
  • Avoid hot or spicy foods until the ulcer is healed.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

The outcome varies depending on the cause of the ulcer. Many mouth ulcers are harmless and heal without treatment.

Some types of cancer may first appear as a mouth ulcer that does not heal.

 

Possible Complications

 

Complications may include:

  • Cellulitis of the mouth, from secondary bacterial infection of ulcers
  • Dental infections (tooth abscesses)
  • Oral cancer
  • Spread of contagious disorders to other people

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your health care provider if:

  • A mouth ulcer does not go away after 3 weeks.
  • You have mouth ulcers return often, or if new symptoms develop.

 

Prevention

 

To help prevent mouth ulcers and complications from them:

  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day and floss once a day.
  • Get regular dental cleanings and checkups.

 

 

References

Daniels TE. Diseases of the mouth and salivary glands. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 433.

Mirowski GW, Mark LA. Oral disease and oral-cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal and liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 22.

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  • Oral thrush

    Oral thrush

    illustration

  • Canker sore (aphthous ulcer)

    Canker sore (aphthous ul...

    illustration

  • Lichen planus on the oral mucosa

    Lichen planus on the ora...

    illustration

  • Mouth sores

    Mouth sores

    illustration

    • Oral thrush

      Oral thrush

      illustration

    • Canker sore (aphthous ulcer)

      Canker sore (aphthous ul...

      illustration

    • Lichen planus on the oral mucosa

      Lichen planus on the ora...

      illustration

    • Mouth sores

      Mouth sores

      illustration

    A Closer Look

     

      Talking to your MD

       

        Self Care

         

          Tests for Mouth ulcers

           
             

            Review Date: 1/31/2015

            Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, medical director and director of didactic curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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