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Hypervitaminosis D

Vitamin D toxicity

 

Hypervitaminosis D is a condition that occurs after taking very high doses of vitamin D.

Causes

 

The cause is excess intake of vitamin D. The doses need to be very high, far above what most medical providers normally prescribe.

There has been a lot of confusion about vitamin D supplementation. It is extremely unusual for anybody to need more than 2,000 IU of vitamin D a day.

For most people, vitamin D toxicity only occurs with Vitamin D doses above 10,000 IU per day.

 

Symptoms

 

An excess of vitamin D causes abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). This can severely damage the kidneys, soft tissues, and bones over time.

  • Constipation
  • Decreased appetite (anorexia)
  • Dehydration
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent urination
  • Irritability
  • Muscle weakness
  • Vomiting
  • Excessive thirst (polydipsia)
  • High blood pressure
  • Passing large amounts of urine (polyuria)

 

Exams and Tests

 

The health care provider will examine you and ask about your symptoms.

Tests that may be ordered include:

  • Calcium in the blood
  • Calcium in the urine
  • 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels
  • Serum phosphorus
  • X-ray of the bone

 

Treatment

 

Your provider will likely tell you to stop taking vitamin D. In severe cases, other treatment may be needed.

 

Outlook (Prognosis)

 

Recovery is expected, but permanent kidney damage can occur.

 

Possible Complications

 

Health problems that can result from taking too much vitamin D over a long time include:

  • Dehydration
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Kidney damage
  • Kidney stones

 

When to Contact a Medical Professional

 

Call your health care provider if:

  • You or your child shows symptoms of hypervitaminosis D and has been taking more vitamin D than the recommended daily allowance
  • You or your child shows symptoms and has been taking a prescription or over-the-counter form of vitamin D

 

Prevention

 

To prevent this condition, pay careful attention to the correct vitamin D dose.

 

 

References

Greenbaum LA. Rickets and hypervitaminosis D. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 51.

Gropper SS, Smith JL. Fat-soluble vitamins. In: Gropper SS, Smith JL, eds. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. 6th ed Independence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing; 2012:chap 10.

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        Tests for Hypervitaminosis D

         
           

          Review Date: 10/28/2015

          Reviewed By: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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