Increased head circumferenceMacrocephaly
Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the widest part of the skull is larger than expected for the child's age and background.
A newborn's head is usually about 2 cm (centimeters) larger than the chest size. Between 6 months and 2 years, both measurements are about equal. After 2 years, the chest size becomes larger than the head.
Measurements over time that show an increased rate of head growth often provide more valuable information than a single measurement that is larger than expected.
Increased pressure inside the head (increased intracranial pressure) often occurs with increased head circumference. Symptoms of this condition include:
Increased head size may be from any of the following:
- Benign familial macrocephaly (family tendency toward large head size)
- Canavan disease
- Hurler syndrome
- Hydrocephalus (congenital, post-traumatic, or obstructive)
- Intracranial bleeding
- Morquio syndrome
When to Contact a Medical Professional
The health care provider usually finds an increased head size in a baby during a routine well-baby exam.
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
A careful physical exam will be done. Other milestones for growth and development will be checked.
In some cases, a single measurement is enough to confirm that there is a size increase that needs to be tested further. More often, repeated measurements of the head circumference over time are needed to confirm that the head circumference is increased and the problem is getting worse.
Diagnostic tests that may be ordered include:
Robinson S, Cohen AR. Disorders in head shape and size. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 64.
Review Date: 4/21/2015
Reviewed By: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.