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Anti-smooth muscle antibody

 

Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence of antibodies against smooth muscle. The antibody is useful in making a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis.

A blood sample is needed. This may be taken through a vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture.

How to Prepare for the Test

 

No special steps are needed to prepare for this test.

 

How the Test will Feel

 

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

 

Why the Test is Performed

 

You may need this test if you have signs of certain diseases, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis. These conditions can trigger the body to form antibodies against smooth muscle.

 

Normal Results

 

Normally, there are no antibodies present.

Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test results.

 

What Abnormal Results Mean

 

A positive test may be due to:

  • Chronic active autoimmune hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Infectious mononucleosis

The test also helps distinguish autoimmune hepatitis from systemic lupus erythematosus.

 

Risks

 

Risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

 

 

References

Czaja AJ. Autoimmune hepatitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 88.

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      Tests for Anti-smooth muscle antibody

       
       

      Review Date: 1/20/2015

      Reviewed By: Gordon A. Starkebaum, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

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