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Short Overview of the American Psychological Association's (APA) and the Modern Language Association's (MLA) Rules for Writing Bibliographical Citations
 

What is a Bibliography?

 Bibliography (Greek bibliographia, “writing of books”), originally the writing or copying of books.  Over the centuries, the meaning of the word has evolved to “a list of books or other forms of written material, or the technique of compiling such a list”. A bibliography is a list of works, including books, journals, magazines, essays, Internet documents, newspaper articles, reference works, government documents, etc., on a particular subject.

 

There are certain types of information that are supplied in a bibliography, such as author(s), titles(s), edition(s), and dates and places of publication. Although there are several bibliographical formats, examples of the two major formats, American Psychological Association (APA) 5th edition and Modern Language Association (MLA) are provided. Be sure to check with your instructor to see which format is to be used.

 

 

Book: Single author

APA

Clark, C., C. (2000). Integrating complementary health procedures into

      practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company. 

MLA

Clark, C., C. Integrating Complementary Health Procedures into Practice. 

      New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2000. 

 

Book: Two or more authors

APA

Mindell, E., & Hopkins, V. (1998). Prescription alternatives. New Canaan,

      CT:  Keats Publishing Company.

MLA

Mindell, E., and V. Hopkins. Prescription Alternatives. New Canaan, CT:

      Keats Publishing Company, 1998.

 

Book: Second or later edition

APA

Orem, D. (1980). Nursing: Concepts of practice, 2nd ed. New York:

      McGraw-Hill.  

MLA

Orem, D. Nursing: Concepts of Practice. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill,

      1980.  

 

Book: Corporate author

APA

American Nurses Association. (1987). Standards and scope of gerontological

     nursing practice. Kansas City: American Nurses Association.  

MLA

American Nurses Association. Standards and Scope of Gerontological

     Nursing Practice. Kansas City: American Nurses Association, 1987.  

 

Book: Anthology or compilation

APA

Peterson, M., D. & White, D., L. (Eds.). (1989). Health care of the elderly:

     an information source book. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

MLA

Peterson, M., D., and D. L. White, eds. Health Care of the Elderly: An

    Information Source Book. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE, 1989.

 


 

 

 

Chapter in anthology or compilation

APA

Brock, A. M. (1991). Economics of aging. In E. Murrow (Ed.), Perspectives

      on gerontological nursing (pp. 170). Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

MLA

Brock, A. M. “Economics of Aging.” Perspectives on Gerontological

      Nursing. Ed. E. Murrow.  Newbury Park, CA: SAGE, 1991. 170.

 

Signed magazine article

APA

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.

MLA

Henry, W. A., III. “Beyond the Melting Pot.” Time 9 Apr. 1990: 28-31.

 

Unsigned magazine article

APA

The decade of the spy. (1994, March 7). Newsweek, 26-27.

MLA

“The Decade of the Spy.” Newsweek 7 Mar. 1994: 26-27.

 

Journal article, continuous pagination

APA

Corsello, S. (1998 Feb-Mar). The ideal clinic. Reversing lupus and diabetes.

      Alternative Medicine Digest, 22: 44-8, 51-3.

MLA

Corsello, S. “The Ideal Clinic. Reversing Lupus and Diabetes.” Alternative

      Medicine Digest 22 (1998): 44-8, 51-3.

 

Journal article, non-continuous pagination

APA

 Huckstadt, A. A. (2002, Sep). The experience of hospitalized elderly

      patients.  Journal of  Gerontological Nursing, 28(9): 24-9.

MLA

Huckstadt, A. A. “The Experience of Hospitalized Elderly Patients.”  Journal

      of  Gerontological Nursing 28.9 (2002): 24-9.

 

Signed newspaper article

APA

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.

      The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

MLA

Schwartz, J. “Obesity Affects Economic, Social Status.” The Washington

      Post 30 Sept. 1993: A1, A4.

 

Unsigned newspaper article

APA

Nursing shortage targeted. (2001, November 14). Asbury Park Press,

       pp. C9, C12.

MLA

“Nursing Shortage Targeted.” Asbury Park Press 14 Nov. 2001: C9, C12.

 

Signed newspaper editorial

APA

Blakeney, Barbara. (2003, July/August). ANA well-positioned to do the

      work of nursing [Editorial]. The American Nurse, p. 4.

MLA

Blakeney, Barbara. “ANA well-positioned to do the work of nursing.”

       Editorial. The American Nurse  July/August, 2003: 4.

 

 

 

Unsigned newspaper editorial

APA

Hospitals resist reform, work new doctors too hard. (1998, May 28).

      [Editorial]. USA Today, p. A12.

MLA

“Hospitals Resist Reform, Work New Doctors Too Hard.” Editorial.

      USA Today 28 May 1998: A12.

 

Government publication

APA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1998). New motor vehicles and

     new motor vehicle engines air pollution control” Voluntary Standards

    for light-duty vehicles. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

MLA

United States Environmental Protection Agency. New Motor Vehicles and

    New Motor Vehicle Engines Air Pollution Control: Voluntary Standards

    For Light-Duty Vehicles. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office,

    1998.

 

Signed article in reference work

APA

Fairbanks, V. (2001). Iron deficiency. In Williams Hematology (6th. ed).

     New York: McGraw Hill. [Chapter 38, pp. 447-470.]

MLA

Fairbanks, Virgil. “Iron Deficiency.” Williams Hematology. 6th. ed.

     New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.

 

Unsigned article in reference work

APA

Emergency and trauma care. (1999). In Medical surgical nursing:Total

    patient care, 1999 (pp.517-555). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby.

MLA

“Emergency and Trauma Care.”  Medical Surgical Nursing: Total

    Patient Care. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 1999.

 

Personal interview

APA

Rivera, J. (2000, March 24). [Personal interview].

MLA

Rivera, Julian. Personal interview. 24 Mar. 2000.

 

Letter or e-mail communication

APA

Wodicka, K. (kathyw@stti.iupui.edu). (2003, October 2). 37th Biennial

    Convention Presider Information. E-mail to S. Torres

     (storres@meridianhealth.com).

MLA

Wodicka, Kathy. E-mail to the author. 2 Oct. 2003.

 

Speech or lecture

APA

Chan, Y.H. (2000, March 17). Water pollution. [Lecture]. In Geography 212:

     Environmental science. University of Florida.

MLA

Chan, Yi-Huang. Lecture on water pollution. Geography 212:

     Environmental Science. University of Florida 17 Mar. 2000.

 

 

 

 

 

Television program

APA

Bradley, E. (Narrator). (1998, May 31). Crazy like a fox? In 60 minutes.

     New York: CBS.

MLA

“Crazy Like a Fox?” Narr. Ed Bradley. 60 Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York.

     31,  May 1998.

 

Film

APA

Mock, F.L. (Director). (1995). Maya Lin: A strong clear vision [Film]. Santa

      Monica, CA: American Film Foundation.

MLA

“Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision.” Dir. Freida Lee Mock. Santa Monica:

      American Film Foundation, 1995.

 

CD-ROM publication

APA

Roundy, R.W. (1994). Ethiopia. In Compton’s interactive encyclopedia

      (Version 2.01). Available:[CD-ROM]. Carlsbad, CA: Compton’s

      NewMedia, Inc.

MLA

Roundy, Robert W. “Ethiopia.” Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia.

     CD-ROM. Carlsbad, CA: Compton’s NewMedia, Inc., 1994.

 

World Wide Web document

APA

Reuters Health. (1999,k October 26). Chinese herbal medicines gaining

     acceptance in West. Retrieved November 2, 1999 from

     http://www.acupunture.com/News/Reuters_Health_NY.htm.

MLA

Reuters Health. “Chinese Herbal Medicines Gaining Acceptance in West.”

     2 Nov. 1999 [last update].

     http://www.acupunture.com/News/Reuters_Health_NY.htm 26 Oct. 1999.

 

 


updated: November 4, 2009

 

 

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